Monday, April 9, 2012

ROYAL HISTROY OF MUTHARAIYAR

MUDIRAJA / MUTHURAJA


Click here to go to --> 01 INTRODUCTION :
Click here to go to --> 02 MUDIRAJAS / MUTHURAJAS :
Click here to go to --> 03 KALCHURIS


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01. INTRODUCTION :

The Royal history of Mudiraja / Muthuraja people of South India is to be identified with that of Mutharaiyar kings in and around Thanjavoor in Tamil speaking lands of South India . The population of Muthuraja / Mutharaiyar people is quite considerable even today in the areas of Thanjore, Pudukottai, and Northamalai. The fact is that the ancestors of Muthurajas lived in and around Thanjavoor in Tamilnadu and is a silent pointer to explain why Thanjavoor remained a powerful seat of Telugu language and culture since many centuries. We should also remember that Thanjore was the capital city of Mutharaiyar kings and they were the first kings to build temples and forts in that region. The famous Telugu saint poet and Karnatic singer Tyagaraja too hailed from this region of Tanjore. Thanjavoor and surrounding regions of present day Tamilnadu were once infested by migrated Telugu speaking people of Rayalaseema region.

Historians believe that Mutharaiyars (Mudirajas) are the descendants of Kalabhras and Kalabhras were the people of great warrior race, who infested the uplands Karnataka (Hampi Region), and Thirupathi (Vengadam) Hills. The areas of Hampi and Thirupathi hills were part and parcel of undevided Rayalaseema of erstwhile Andhra State which was formed before reorganization of Indian states based on language in independent India after end of British rule. Rayalaseema was also a part of Dandakaaranya in Deccan India, which had a mention in the great Sanskrit epic Ramayana written by sage Valmiki. Historians have also identified several kings of South Indian origin belonging to various clans as the descendants of great warriors Kalabhra race.

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02 MUDIRAJAS / MUTHURAJAS :

Mudirajus (Muthurajas) were the descendants of Kalabhras: The Mutharaiyars of Kondubalur (8th to 11th Century AD) are believed to be the descendants of the mighty warrior race of Kalabhras. Some historians regard that Kalabhras were a predatory people belonging to the uplands of Karnataka on the strength of a reference in Tamil literature to the rule of a Karnata king over Madura. The various names used to refer these people of " Raja / Raya / Racha / Rasa / Arasu " ruling class are as given below:


•Mudiraja => Muthuraja => Mutharacha
•Mutharacha => Mutharaya => Mutharaiyar
•Mutharacha => Mutharasa => Mutharasu => Mutharasi
•Mutharaiyar => Muttiriyar => Muttiris
•Mutharaiyar => Muthariyar => Mudaliyar
The Bellary districts were originally a Telugu speaking region since unknown times and were an integral part of erstwhile Rayalaseema of Andhra Pradesh. These Bellary districts were given to the then Mysore State by Andhra State in exchange for some other districts for some administrative reasons. The Rayalaseema Region of South India gave birth to a host of great RAYA kings, who wiliingly laid down their lives to protect the Hindus and Hinduism from the onslaught of Muslim invaders and Rayalaseema was comparable to the great Rajasthan of North India.

Racha => Raya => Raja => King
Mandalam => Seema => Sthan => Land (Region)
Rayalaseema => Rajathan => Land of kings or Land of kings community

Dr. Aiyangar observes:

"The Andhra rulers...had an alternative capital in the basin of lower Krishna at Amaravati wherefrom they stretched south wards, and, perhaps at one time, made an effort to extend their authority successfully even down to the southern Pennar..." The gradual pressure from the Andhra Empire seems to have set up a popular movement resulting in the migration of the somewhat less civilized people who seem to have completely upset the Governments of South India and introduced what may well be regarded as a period of anarchy to which later inscriptions refer to in unmistakable terms. This is the movement of the people called Kalvar or Kalavar, and they must have moved down from the region round and about Vengadam, if not from the whole of Tondamandalam. ..." Kalabhras fought against Brahmin supremacy and were abused by Brahmin epigraphists after their rule ended.

At any rate the Kalabhras are roundly denounced as evil king (kali-arasar) who uprooted many adhirajas and abrogated brahmdeya rights; there was no love lost between these interlopers and the people of the lands they overran. The Cholas disappeared from the Tamil land almost completely in this debacle, though a branch of them can be tranced towards the close of the period in Rayalaseema, the Telugu Cholas, whose kingdom is mentioned by Yuan Chwang in the seventh century A.D.".

Mutharaiyars of Kodunabnalar:

" The Muttaraiyar and Kodunabnalar chiefs of Kalabhra origin, according to one view, were feudatory to the Pallavas and the Pandyas respectively, and in the contest between two powers, they fought on opposite sides. The Muttaraiyar ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai as the feudatories of the Pallavas from the 800 A.D to 1100 A.D.

There is a reference to Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan- II who attended the coronation of Nandivarman Pallavamlla. One of the titles of the Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. Vijayalaya Chola, who conquered Tanjore from a Muttaraiyan in the 9 A.D., was a Pallava feudatory. A vindication of the law of nemesis is discernible in the victory of a Chola chief over a descendant of the Kalabhras who had overthrown the earlier Chola kingdom."

Narthamalai:

Narthamalai is a place of historical importance for the people of Muthuraja / Mudiraja . Narthamalai is a cluster of small hillocks, 25 kms from Tiruchi on the Tiruchi-Pudukottai road .

Narthamalai has some of the oldest structural stone temples, built by the Mutharaiyars (Muthurajas). This temple has six large, skillfully carved statues of Lord Vishnu in the central hall. A 9th century Pallava cave temple dedicated to Lord Shiva lies to the south, and in front of this is the Vijayalaya Choliswaran temple.

In Narthamalai, there is Vijayalaya Choleeswaram, a structural stone temple, circular in shape built by the Mutharayars. Vijayalaya was the first of the later Cholas and as such, this Shiva temple is one of the earliest Chola creations. Besides the structural stone Temple built by the Mutharayars, there is the life size scluptures carved out of the rock during the Chola King Vijayalayan. However, glimpse of artistic greatness that was still to come can be seen in the beautiful figures of the dancers in front of the vimana, the elegantly carved dwara-palakas and the figures of other Gods.

Narthamalai came under the sway of the MUTHARAYARS from 7th to 9th century who were the vassals of the Pallava kings of Kanchi and Pandya kings of Madurai and was later conquered by the Cholas of Thanjavur.

The two rock-cut temples atop Melamalai besides the Vijayaleeswara Choleeswaram temples tucked under idyllic settings are extremely informative and also a classic example of the fusion of different styles of temple architecture prevailing in different parts of the country. One cannot but marvel how in that distant past the MUTHARAIYARS, whose contribution to the temple architecture and local government were not given due recognition and importance, had become master builders.

The Mutharayars according to the available information had their headquarters at Nemam near Tirukattupalli and held their sway over Tiruchi, Thanjavur and Pudukottai regions until the emergence of the mighty Cholas of Thanjavur.

Vijayalaya Choleeswaram :

The Vijayalaya Choleeswaram in Narthamalai, though so called under the name of the founder of the Chola dynasty of Thanjavur, is a fine example of Mutharayar style of construction and indeed a forerunner of the magnificent temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram built by Rajendra Chola.

While the Kanchipuram and Thiruppattur temples were conceptions of Pallava artists, the Naarthamalai temple came out of Muttaraiyar Shilpis.

The temple, as well as the six shrines and one upto the foundation level around the temple, were all built with granite stones. About 15 years ago, the Archaeological survey of India had restored and re-built the dilapidated parts of the temple complex in a brilliant manner keeping to the original style which exhibits the pioneering efforts of the Mutharayars.

The temple Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram is a marvellous piece of art built by a Muttaraiyar chief, Ilango Adi Araiyan / Ilangovathi Mutharayar (alias) Chathambuthi. This is inferred from an inscription under one of the dvara-palaka-s. The inscription says that the temple was originally built by one Sembudi, also called Ilango Adi Araiyan, and that is suffered damage by heavy rains and the same was repaired and rebuilt by one Mallan-viduman / Mallan Vithuman Mutharaya king also called Tennavan Tamil Adi Araiyan in 886 A.D.

The temple obtained its present name after Vijayalaya Chozha, the founder of the imperial Chozha line (second half of 9th century AD). This name was referred to, for the first time, in a 13th century, Mara-varman Sundara-pandya inscription and it has survived obscuring the fact that the temple was erected by the Muttaraiyar-s . As far as the dating of the builder Ilango Adi Araiyan is concerned, there are two opinions. Some are of the opinion that he belonged to the time of the Pallava king Nandi-varman II or even to that his predecessor (8th century AD). Other experts opine that he belonged to the time of Vijayalaya Chozha (second half of 9th century AD).

The shrine is an important one in the history of temples of the Tamil country. According to K.V. Soundararajan (in his book titled Studies in Indian Temple Architecture) this is 'one of the important temples of the early Muttaraiyars, entirely circular from the ground tala up to the sikharam , constituting a single Vesara example'.

This is an interesting Muttaraiyar temple constructed in Vesara style and with ashta-parivara-s. The west facing main shrine would have been at the centre of a large courtyard and surrounded by the eight sub-shrines within the courtyard. These sub-shrines are in various stages of ruin. The complex is surrounded by a prakaram.

There is a clear evidence that the temple was in existence prior to Vijayalaya chola, though at present the temple is called Vijayalaya Choleeswaram.

During the 7th to 9th centuries Narttamalai was part of the Pallava Empire, but was directly administrated by Muttaraiyars.

Pazhiyileeswaram is another rock-cut cave temple with a Siva linga inside a small sanctum sanctorum with two beautiful dwarapalakas. The cave temple known as Pazhiyili Isvaram appears to have been excavated during the time of the Pallava Nandi-varman III (about 826-849 AD) by a Muttaraiyar chief Sattan-pazhiyili, son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan as stated in the inscription on this temple dated in the seventh year of the Pallava emperor Nripatunga Varman (about 849-875 AD / 855-896 A.D). This region was apparently been disputed by the Pandyas and the Cholas till about the middle of the 9th century when Vijayalaya Chola incorporated it in the Chola empire after defeating the Muttaraiyar.

The inscription says that the cave temple was built by the Mutharaya king. Mutharayar and his son Sattan had built the Mukha Mandapam, Nandimandapam and Balipeetam at the temple. This inscription helps to read the lineage of the Mutharayar kings, who were the vassals of the Pallava kings.

During the reign of Raja Raja I (about 985-1014 AD) Narttamalai was called Telungu-kulakala-puram after one of the titles of the king.

Ettikkudi :

Th image of Skanda in the sanctum of Subramanyar temple is an exquisite one and said to have been installed during the rule of the Muttaraiyar chieftans.

This ancient Subramanyar temple is located 40 km south west of Nagappattinam, and is easily accessd from Tiruvarur. It has been revered by the hymns of Arunagirinathar. The name Ettikkudi is derived from the Etti trees which dominated this area. The name Ettukkudi is derived from the fact that this shrine is surrounded by Shivastalams in all eight directions.

This temple is linked closely with Sikkal and Ennkann through the legend that the images of Skanda in all three of these shrines were made by the same sculptor.

This image of Skanda in the sanctum is an exquisite one. The entire image is supported only by the 2 legs of the peacock mount. This image is said to have been installed during the rule of the Muttaraiyar chieftans of Tamilnadu.

The theertham here is Saravana Poikai and the stala vriksham is the vanni tree.

Thanjavur :

Thanjavur town was the capital of Mutharayars ( Mudirajas / Muthurajas ) and Cholas.

The Cholas had destroyed the Mutharayan clan. The Thanjavur fort came into the Cholas' possession only after the Mutharayans were destroyed. Tanjavur was ruled by the Muthuriyars for about 350 years under the overlordship of the Pallava kings from from 800 AD to 1100 AD. There is a reference to Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan II who attended the coronation of Nandivarman Pallavamlla. One of the titles of the Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore.

The Muttaraiyar and Kodunabnalar chiefs of Kalabhra origin, according to one view, were feudatory to the Pallavas and the Pandyas respectively, and in the contest between two powers, they fought on opposite sides. The Muttaraiyar ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai as the feudatories of the Pallavas from the eighth century to eleventh. There is a reference to Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan II who attended the coronation of Nandivarman Pallavamlla. One of the titles of the Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. Vijayalaya Chola, who conquered Tanjore from a Muttaraiyan in the ninth century, was a Pallava feudatory.

When the last Muthurayiar King tried to assert his independence, Vijayala Cholan with the support of the Pallava King,defeated the Muthurayiars around 850 A.D. In the year A.D.852 Vijayalaya Chola waged war with the Muttaraiyar king Sattan Paliyilli (A.D.826-852) in the neighbouring east, and captured his territory of Thanjavur and made it the capital for his newly founded line of Imperial Cholas. Later Raja Raja Chola came into power.

Additional Information about Muthurajas :

Muthurajas are believed to be descendents of Mutharayars who were the sub-kings of Pallava rulers. Generally they are of WARRIOR caste like the Pallava(mudali). The Mutharayars are believed to be the descendants of Kalabhras.

Mutharayars are well cultured and civilized community. Some historical evidence shows that mutharayars had close matrimonial relation with cholas and pandyas. Pandyas of medival times were having the epithets varman, it was coming from both mutharayars and pallavas. The Mutharayars only, first formed the forts in thanjavur and vallam. From this only cholas changed their capital to thanjai. Mutharayars have been portraited in sangam tamil text NALADIYAR. This may be the only caste which has been portraited in sangam texts. Mutharayars have subsects Ambalakkarar, servai, servaikkarar, vwttaikkarar, muthuraja, etc.

Muthuraja is a caste name used in most areas around Trichy. Muthurajas claim their descent from Mutharayar clans who ruled Tanjavur before being unseated by Vijayala Chola. After the ascent of Cholas, most of the Mutharaiyars lost their ruling rights. Some of them were ruling as small principality in areas around Trichy under the overll controll and jurisdiction of Pallavas.

Muthurajas are believed to be the arch rivals of Cholas due to historical reasons continued fight between them for supremacy in Tamil speaking regions. Mutharayars fought with Cholas even on behalf of Pallavas as loyal subordinates. The Pandyas and Pallavas carried on the wars by proxy through their subordinate chiefs the Mutharayars and Velirs.

Though Mahendravarma Pallava (604-630 A.D) inherited the Pallava empire from his victorious father Simhavishnu that reached up to the bank of the Cauvery, Cholamandalam could not be retained by his immediate successor, as it was over-run by the Pandyas of the further south. The tract north and south of river Vellar were in the hands of the Mutharayar chieftains who till their annihilation by the resurgent Chola line of Vijayalaya, were owing alternate allegiance to the super powers. Thus, one cannot expect to find early Pallava monuments, antiquities and inscriptions in Pudukkottai region but only those of the contemporary Pandyas along with those of Mutharaiyars and Irukkuvelirs.

The tract come under the Pallavas from the time of Nandhivarman-II (730-796 AD) when the Pallavas power reasserted itself in Cholamandalam and the tract south of Kaveri, reaching a little south beyond Vellar, comprising the northern half of the Pudukkottai district. This period is thus marked by the presence of rock cut cave temples of the Pandyas and Mutharaiyars.

The age of Pallavas and Pandyas of the first empire, the Mutharaiyars and Irukkuvelirs was the age of Tamil Bhakthi Movement.

The prevelence of folklore and settelement of large population of Muthurajas in and around Trichy is a clear indication of the fact that the Muthurajas were the descendants of Mutharayar kings.

It is also believed by some sections that Muthurajas were originally the Kalambarars from Karnataka ruled TN (Pandiya & Pallava) after the end of Tamil Sangam period. Most of the rulers of kalambarar follow jainisim. After the raise of Vijayalaya chola, kalambarars lost their ruling rights and they became just muthariyars and mingled with tamil popultion. During thier rule, a chola prince went to cuddaph and kurnool region formed there a chola ynasty and that dynasty was called raynadttu cholarut. In course of time, as they lost their roots with thier chola land, slowly they became telugu king =telegu hola.

It is worth to note here that the kalambarars were non other than the Kalabhras and this can be explained as shown below:

Kalabhras => Kalambhras => Kalambaras
kalambaras => kalambarars

The Kalabhras or Kalambhras or Kadambas moved towards down South of South India under external political pressure and in the process they invaded Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras and even Pallavas who were ruling the present day Tamil speaking land of Tamilnadu and Kerala.

Mutharaiyar = Moonru + Thalai + yar

They ruled Somewhere around 700 A.D. for 200 years in "Tamil Nadu". During such period there were no literature nor documents were found. In history this period have been called as "Dark age" (Irunda kallam). Muthurajas are also believed to the Kshatriyas of vedic origin.

Mutharayars => Valayars => Kalaris => Kallars ?

The other names for the people of Muthuraja in Tamilnadu are Muthuraiyan, Muthurayar,Muthuarasar and Muttarasar .

Mutharayars are well cultured and civilized community. Some historical evidence shows that mutharayars had close matrimonial relation with cholas and pandyas. Pandyas of medival times were having the epithets varman, it was coming from both mutharayars and pallavas. The Mutharayars only first formed the forts in thanjavur and vallam. From this only cholas changed their capital to thanjai.

Mutharayars have been portraited in sangam tamil text NALADIYAR .This may be the only caste which has been portraited in sangam texts. Mutharayars have subsects Ambalakkarar, servai, servaikkarar, vwttaikkarar, muthuraja, etc.

From the point of poetical and thematic value, the Naaladiyar occupies an enviable position, next to the Tirukkural. The Naaladiyar is an excellent ethical work, comprising 400 Venbas (quatrains). According to the tradition, Padumanar who lived after 1100 A.D., collected the poems and compiled them into chapters, following the arrangement of the famed Tirukkural, besides writing a commentary on the text. The chapters were then classified into different sections, which again were accommodated under three divisions viz., Aram - ethics, Porul - polity and Inbam - erotics by another commentator Dharmar.

Vijayala Chola defeated Muttaraiyar king Sattan Paliyilli :

In the year A.D.852 Vijayalaya Chola waged war with the Muttaraiyar king Sattan Paliyilli (A.D.826-852) in the neighbouring east, and captured his territory of Thanjavur.

The Chola empire was the most powerful empire in southern India for more than 200 years. From the A.D. 100’s to the A.D. 700’s, the Cholas were chieftains in what is now Tamil Nadu. Details of the ancient Chola dynasty have been discovered in royal commands, temple pronouncements, records of trade guilds, and in inscriptions by village councils. The Cholas set up their first capital at Uraiyur, and engaged in seaborne trade.

After conquering the city of Thanjavur from Mutharaiyar kings, they made it the new capital of their growing kingdom. The power of the Chola Empire increased, and the rulers’ sense of their own importance grew.

Kaduvetti Muttaraiyan was a subordinate king of Dantivarman Pallava who son of Nandivarman Pallava.

The Mutaraiyans under Sattam-Paliyili, the Gangas under Prithivipati-I and the Banas under Mahabali-Banavidyadhara acknowledged the overlordship of Nripatunga Pallava.

Northmalai: These hills were in early times the abode of Jaina ascetics. The natural cavern at Aluruttimalai, one of the Narttamalai group has traces of beds; similar to those at Ezhadippattam in Sittannavasal), where Jaina monks practiced austerities. Narttamalai appears to have been an important Jaina centre with temples and monasteries and also a mercantile centre (Nagaram) as attested by inscriptions. The local merchants were Silaya-chetti-s, according to the inscriptions.

During the 7th to 9th centuries Narttamalai was part of the Pallava Empire, but was directly administrated by Muttaraiyar-s. The cave temple known as Pazhiyili Isvaram appears to have been excavated during the time of the Pallava Nandi-varman III (about 826-849 AD) by a Muttaraiyar chief Sattan-pazhiyili, son of Videl-vidugu Muttaraiyan as stated in the inscription on this temple dated in the seventh year of the Pallava emperor Nripatunga Varman (about 849-875 AD). This region was apparently been disputed by the Pandya-s and the Chozha-s till about the middle of the 9th century when Vijayalaya Chozha incorporated it in the Chozha empire after defeating the Muttaraiyar.

Inscription : Narttamalai, Pudukkottai State - On the north base of the ruined mandapa in front of the rock-cut Siva temple. This inscription is dated in the 7th year of Nripatungavikramavarman. It states that Sattam Paliyili, son of Videlvidugu-Muttaraiyan, excavated the (rock-cut) temple and that his daughter Paliyili Siriya-Nangai, the wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias Pallan Anantan enlarged it by adding a mukha-mandapa, bali-pitha etc., and also made provision for worship and offerings to the god therein.

Inscription : Tiruvalangadu, Tiruttani Taluk, Chittoor District -On the east wall of the first prakara of the Nataraja shrine in the Vataranyesvara temple. It is dated in the 15th year of Nripatungadeva, and it states that the assembly of Pulvelur in Eyir-kottam agreed to supply one uri of oil daily, by the measure Pirudimanikkam for burning two perpetual lamps in the temple of Tiruvalangadu-Udaiyar for the amount of 30 kalanju of gold received by them from one Ariganda-Perumal. This person may be identified with the donor of the same name mentioned as the son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar in a record of the 24th year of Nripatunga from Tirumukkudal.It may be mentioned that Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar figures in a record from Pillaipalaiyam[8] near Conjeeveram in the reign of Dantivarman.

Inscription : Tirukkodikkaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District -On the South wall of the central shrine in the Tirukkodisvara temple. This record of the 22nd year is prefaced by the remark that ‘this is also a copy of an old stone inscription’. It is preceded by a record of the Pandya king Maran Sadaiyan and followed by an epigraph of the Muttaraiyar chief Ilango-Muttaraiyar, all of which are engraved in continuation of one another.

Inscription : Tirumukkudal, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District -On a slab supporting a beam set up in the inner enclosure of the Venkatesa-Perumal temple. This record states that, in the 24th year of Vijaya -Nripatungavikramavarman, the assembly of Siyapuram in Urrukkattuk-kottam agreed to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple of Vishnu-Bhatara at Tirumukkudal for the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Ariganda-Perumana, son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar. The interest on 30 kalanju came to 4½ kalanju, calculating at the rate of 3 manjadi per kalanju. For this 4½ kalanju, the assembly of Siyapuram agreed to supply oil at a uniform rate of 40 nali per kalanju for maintaining the lamp. Palaiyasivaram near Tirumukkudal is called Siyapuram in inscriptions.

Inscription : A linear land measure belonging to the later Chola period and few other inscriptions of different periods have been discovered at the Saptharishisvara temple at Lalgudi, near Tiruchi, by M.Nalini, lecturer, Department of History, Seethalakshmi Ramaswami College, and R. Kalaikkovan, Director, Dr. M. Rajamanikkanar Centre for Historical Research.

The discoveries were made during their field studies as part of a research project of a postgraduate student.

The land measure is 3.47 metres long and has been carved in between two deeply cut vertical lines on the base of the outer wall of the inner `prakara' near the Amman shrine. An engraving refers to the measure as "alavu kol." The inscription could date back to 12th century, according to Dr. Kalaikkovan.

Besides the measure, an undated inscription of Rajendra II was discovered from the lowermost moulding of the main `vimana.' It records a sale deed and provides information on the sale of land and the remission. One Chembian Devan of Kaithur gifted 75 `kasu' to the temple treasury to purchase land towards `Aippasi' festival expenses.

Araiyan Vikramacholan alias Brahamdirajan of Puvanur at Idaiyarru Mangalam accepted the money and sold a piece of his land at Mummudichola Mangalam as tax-free `thiruvizhapuram' to the temple. According to the inscription, only 20 kasus were accepted as the land price and the remaining 55 kasus given to the authorities as a wholesome amount towards remission of taxes. The arbitrator of the village Pallikondan Manavalan along with the other signatories had signed the document. Extensive details of the boundaries of the land and its irrigational sources provided in the sale deed highlights the utmost care taken those days in recording agricultural data.

Scanty Information known about Mutharaiyar Kings :

•Some identify Kalabhras with the line of Muttaraiyar of Kondubalur. < •Mutharaiyars of kondunabalur were feudatory to the Pallavas and the Pandyas. •Muttaraiyar ruled over Tanjore and Pudukkotai from the 800 A.D to 1100 A.D •Mutharaiyars, in the contest between pallavas and pandyas, fought on opposite sides. •Perumbidugu - Muttaraiyan- II attended the coronation of Nandivarman Pallavamlla. •One of the titles of the Muttaraiyar was Lord of Tanjore. •Vijayalaya Chola conquered Tanjore from a Muttaraiyan in the 900 A.D. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- go TOP 03. KALCHURIS The name Kalachuri is used by two kingdoms who had a sucession of dynasties from the 10th-12th century AD, one ruling over areas in Central India (west Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan) and were called Chedi or Haihaya (Heyheya) (northern branch) and the other southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka. The earliest known Kalachuri family ruled from 550–620AD in central and western India; its power ended with the rise of Badami Chalukyas. Northern Kalachuri family ruled in central India with its base at the ancient city of Tripuri (Tewar); it originated in the 8th century AD, expanded significantly in the 11th century, and declined in the 12th–13th centuries. Southern Kalachuri Kingdom (Kannada: 1130 - 1184AD) at their peak ruled parts of the deccan extending over regions of present day northern Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra. Their rule was a short and turbulent and yet very important from a the socio - religious movement point of view. A new sect called the Lingayat or Virashaiva sect was founded during these times. Kalchuris were Natives of Central India : According to a record of 1174 A. D., the founder of the family was one Soma, who was a disciple of Ashwathama. On the instructions of his preceptor, he grew beard and moustache, to save himself from the wrath of Parashurama, and thereafter the family came to be known as "Kalachuris", Kalli meaning a long moustache and churi meaning a sharp knife. However, the later records of the dynasty claim that they descended from Brahma, the Creator, who was followed by Atri and Soma (moon), and that in this illustrious lineage came such celebrities like Yadu, Haihaya and Kartavirya Arjuna. Sometimes they called themselves as belonging to the Haihaya (Chedi) family. Dr. P. B. Desai is emphatic in his opinion that the Kalachuris did not originally belong to Karnataka and that they were immigrants from northern region, possibly from central India. They were known as Katachuris, and they had carved out an extensive empire that covered the regions of Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and Maharashtra. However, its powerful ruler, Buddharaja, sustained a crippling defeat at hands of the Chalukya King Magalesa, which threw the Katachuri power into the limbo of obscurity. They were also referred to as Katachuris (shape of a sharp knife), Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara (Lord of Kalanjara) and Haihaya (Heheya). Mount Kalanjara is in north central India, east of the Indus Valley floodplain. This name Haihaya is supposed to be derived from haya (a horse). Other theories are, a prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson of Yadu. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin has been ascribed. The Vishnu Purana represents them as descendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally associated with borderers and outlying tribes. In the Vayu and other Puranas, five great divisions of the tribe are named as Talajanghas, Vitihotras, Avantis, Tundikeras, Jatas, or rather Sujatas. The origin of Kalchuri kings was Madhya Pradesh. Later on, they spread to Chattisgarh, Orissa, Maharastra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Basically, the Kalchuri kings of M.P were the supporters of Jainism. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king VIJJALA of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola. Kalchuri dynasties existed from 6th century A.D to almost 14th century A.D. They mainly ruled over Malwa, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. •1. The dynasty of Mahismati Kalchuris existed from around 6th century AD. Area and expansion wise, it was an extremely small dynasty which was able to hold a surprisingly large area which included Malwa and Gujarat. •2. The dynasty of Tripura Kalchuris existed from around 7th to 10th century AD. A member of the Mahismati Kalichuri family, VAMRAJ, first established his kingdom in the areas of Jabalpur, Satna, Rewa and Panna. There were about 14 kings in the family. There was also another branch of the exhaustive Kalichuri family, which was the Ratanpur Kalichuris. •3. The dynasty of Ratnapur Kalchuris existed from around 890 Century A.D.till well into the 14th Century A.D. The power of Kalchuris began to wane in around 1400AD and Gonds managed to establish themselves as an independent force. •4. The dynasty of Gonds came into existence in around 14th Century and lasted till 1742 A.D. The Gonds too ruled by making Jabalpur as their capital. The Gonds assumed power in the 15th century with Samgram Shah as the first Gond ruler who built fortresses, temples and dams. Gondwana,as their realm was called, reached its peak under Sangram Shah (1480-1530AD). The area under their control was throughout limited to Jabalpur-Bhopal. One of their important queens Rani Durgavati is still celebrated in Gond legends for her courage and valour. Jabalpur is one of the major cities of Madhya Pradesh and it is a historic city at one time ruled by the Kalchuri dynasty, the Gond kings, the Mauryas, and the Guptas. For a long time it was ruled over by the Kalchuri dynasty. Numerous inscriptions belonging to the Kalchuri kings establish the genealogy of these kings from Kokalla-I (875 AD) to Kokalla-15 (1180 AD), the last Kalchuri king. The original settlement in this area was ancient Tripuri, which is now known as Jabalpur. The rulers of this city, the Hayahayas, are mentioned in the Mahabharata. It passed successively into Mauryan and then Gupta control until, in 875 AD, it was taken by the Kalchuri rulers. In the 13th century it was overrun by the Gonds and by the early 16th century it had became the powerful state of Gondwana. Though besieged by Mughal armies from time to time, Gondwana survived until 1789 when it was conquered by the Marathas. Jabalpur was a Pleasure resort and capital of the Gond Kings during the 12th century. The Marathas held sway over Jabalpur until 1817, when the British wrested it from them and left their impression on the spacious cantonment with its colonial residences and barracks. Satna district of M.P was once historically a part of Baghelkhand. The early Budhist books, the Mahabharat etc, connect the Baghelkhand tract with rulers of the Haihaya, Kalchuri or Chedi clan, who are believed to have gained sufficient importance sometime during the 3 century A.D. Their original habitat is placed on the Narbada (Narmada) with Mahishmati (identified by some with Maheshwar in west Nimar district) as the capital; from where they seem to have been driven eastwards. They had acquired the fort of Kalinjara (a few miles beyond the border of Satna district, in U.P.), and with this as base, they extended their dominious over Baghelkhand. The chief stronghold of the Chedi clan was Kalinjar, and their proudest title was Kalanjaradhishwara (Lord of Kalanjar). The Kalchuris received their first blow at the hands of Chandel chief Yashovarmma (925-55), who seized the fort of Kalinjar and the tract surrounding it. The Kalchuris were still a powerful tribe and continued to hold most of their possessions until the 12th century. Kalanjaradhishwara => Lord of Kalanjar
Narbada => Narmada

From 8th century to 12th century some parts of the Damoh district were parts of Chedi Empire ruled by Kalchuri dynasty from capital Tripuri. The magnificent temple at Nohta is a Living example of the glory of Kalchuries in 10th century. It's a temple situated on the periphery of Damoh city . It houses the icons of Lord Shiva , the destroyer In Hindu mythology . It's a place of pilgrimage as well as scenic beauty for visitors . Peace seekers as well as girls urging for good matrimonial matches throng here to please Lord Shiva , so as to grand there wishes . This structure has got invaluable Archeological importance. This Shiv Temple is about 1 K.M. away from Nohta village. Shiv is also known as 'Mahadev' and 'Nohleshwar'. It was built around 950-1000 A.D. According to some people the credit of building this temple goes to the queen of Kalchury King Avni Varma of Chalukya Vamsha. The Shiv temple of Nohta is the most important representation or the design of the architecture of Kalchury style of temple buildings of the 10th Century. It is built on a high platform. It's parts are - 'Panch rath', 'Garbhgrih', 'Amtral', 'Mandap' and 'Mukh Mandap'. Situated on the High way from Damoh to Jabalpur 5 kms. from Jabera and 7 km. from Sigrampur toward Damoh on a green hill in the jungle a beautiful double storeyed rest house cum watch tower was built by the Forest Dept. It is a beautiful piece of Architecture. From the main road a narrow path along of the bank of a tank reaches this rest house.

(** Note : Kalchuris continued to be Hindus and followed and promoted the Shaivism by building beautiful teples of invaluable Archeological importance. In fact Shiva is considered as first Jina and Shaivism as the source of jainism. The kakatiya and Vijayanagar kings too were great patrons of Shaivism and built thousand pillar temples during their rule. In the South Kalabras too built beautiful Shiva temples to express their strong devotion to Lord Shiva)

Rewa, a second name for river Narmada, which can be traced back in the old Indian religious book like the Narad Puran. This place came into importance in the kalchuri era. The Kalchuri era saw a rise of a rich culture named Gurgi, a place near Rewa, which was their kingdom and a captivating architecture to its credit. The famous Kalchuri gates today form the captivating entry to the main gates of Rewa fort. Plus their rare sculptures are displayed in the Baghela and Government museum.

About the history of the region the famous historian CW Wills writes, 'in the 10th century AD a powerful Rajput family ruled at Tripuri near Jabalpur, Issuing from this kingdom of Chedi (also known as Kalchuri dynasty) a scion of the royal house by the name Kaling Raja, settled about the year 1000AD, at Tuman, a site at present marked only by a few ruins in the north east of the erstwhile Laphazamidari of The Bilaspur district. His grandson Ratanraja founded Ratanpur Which continued as the capital of a large part of the country now known as Chhattisgarh. This Rajput family called themselves the Haihaya dyanasty. This dynasty continued ruling Chhattisgarh for six centuries. In around the 14th century, it split into parts, the elder branch continued at Ratanpur, while the younger settled in semi-independent state at Raipur. The Marathas attacked Chhattisgarh in 1741 and destroyed the Haihaya power. In 1745 AD after conquering the region, they deposed Raghunath Singhji, the last surviving member of the Ratanpur house. In 1758, the Maraths finally annexed Chhattisgarh, it came directly under Maratha rule and Bimbaji Bhonsle, was appointed the rule. After death of Bimbaji Bhonsle, the Marathas adopted the Suba system.

Tumman (presently Tuman) is a small village, which is located at about 23 KM North-West of Katghora Tehsil Head Quarters. Though this place is not so important, but it was the first capital when the Haihai or Kalchuri Kings came to Chhattisgarh for the first time. It has been mentioned in one of the stone inscriptions named Kharod of Ratanpur that in the year 1181-1182 A.D that one prince of Haihai dynasty had 18 sons. One of them was named Kaling. Kaling's son Kamal was the ruler of Tumman . In the stone inscriptions of King Jajalwa Dev of Ratanpur, during the year 1114 A.D, it is mentioned that Kokkula of Chedi dynasty had 8 sons. The first son was the ruler of Tripuri and the others became the administrators of small kingdoms. Kalingraj were ancestors of these younger sons. Kalingraj occupied South Kaushal (present Chhattisgarh) and stayed there. He made Tumman as his capital. Kalingraj's son was Kamalraj.Kamalraj's son Ratnaraj ( Ratnesh) built temples, gardens etc. to make Tumman a beautiful place. Ratnaraj also founded Ratanpur. His son Prithvidev also constructed a temple at Tumman and a lake at Ratanpur. In one of the ancient writings of Prithvidev-I named Amodhapatt, 1079 A.D, there is reference to the dedication of Chatushk (building standing on four pillars) in Tumman. Ratnadev-I made Ratanpur which is now in Bilaspur District, as his capital in place of Tumman.

In Tumman village there are fifteen ruins of beautifully sculptured and intricate stones. These ruins are mainly of temples. On removing the main ruins , a wonderful entrance door was found. On top of the entrance door, there are images of Bramha, Vishnu and Shiva. From the idol of Shiva in the center, we knew that this was a Shiv temple. In the middle of these three idols, images of nine planets have been made. On the door side, names of Vishnu's ten Avatars have been sculptured. Below this there is Ganga with her vehicle the Crocodile and Yamuna with her vehicle the Tortoise. These intricate carvings resembles in style with the temples of Pali and Janjgir. Nearby flows the River Jatashankari. On the banks of this river there is a heap of damaged ruins. Probably this place was the residential place of Haihai Kings. This is called Satkhanda Mahal. It is quite probably that seeing the geographical location of Tumman, a small invading group of Haihai's came here and occupied this place. In Tumman is situated in a valley which is surrounded by ranges of hills on all sides. There are only two places from which we can go outside from Uprera in the east and Mathin in the west. Probably the importance of Tumman gradually reduced after Ratanpur was made the capital.

Raipur was founded by the Kalchuri King Ram Chandra of Raipur in last quarter of the 14th century AD. Raipur city can be called city of lakes. There are many lakes . Prior to the formation of Nalghar, the water required for the people of city was made available through these lakes only. Around 1402 Kalchuri emperor King Bramhadev built a biggest , spectacular lake at Raipur which is known as Budhapara . Kho-kho lake too is an example of formation art. Mahamaya Temple is situated On the northern side of Maharajbandh temple & western side of Budhatalab in Raipur's old fort area. This temple is stretched in a big premises. Basically this belongs to the Kalchuri era but renovations has made it modern . Right in front of Mahamaya temple is Samleswari temple of Goddess Samlai. There is Mahadev Ghat Just 5 kms from Raipur on the banks of Kharun river. In 1402 , Emperor of Kalchuri Bramhadev in his monumental script carries a mention of Hajirao Naik who built Hatkeswar Mahadev temple. It is believed that this script was originally at Mahadev Ghat which later was fixed on the walls of the old fort . This is still present at the Mahant Ghasidas memorial museum. This is in Sanskrit but with impurities.

Some important information about kalchuris :



•1. Kalchuris were also known as Haihayas or chedis.


•2. Satna district of M.P was once part of Baghelkhand and the early Buddist books, the Mahabharata connect the Bagelkhand with rulers of the Haihayas.


•3. The Haihayas were also mentioned in Ramayana and Mahabharata.


•4. Haihayas were believed to have gained sufficient importance during 3rd Century A.D.


•5. The original habitat of Haihayas was believed to be Narmada valley with Mahishmati as the capital.


•6. Mahismati Kalchuris existed from around 6th century A.D.


•7. Vamraj, a member of Mahismati Kalchuri family first established his kingdom in the areas of Jabalpur, Satna, Rewa and Panna.


•8. Mahishmati was identified by some historians as Maheswar in West Nimar district.


•9. The strong hold of Chedi dynasty was Kalinjar.


•10. The proud title of Chedis was Kalanjaradhiswara (Lord of Kalanjar).


•11. The Kalanjar was lost by Kalchuris to Chandel chief Yashovarmma (925-55 A.D)


•12. Tripuri was capital city of Kalchuri dynasty.


•13. Tripuri was the old name for today's Jabalpur.


•14. Tripuri was captured by Kalchuris in around 875 A.D.


•15. Kokalla-1, 875 A.D - The first Kalchuri king of Tripuri.


•16. Kokalla-15,1180 A.D - The last Kalchuri king of Tripuri.


•17. Avni Verma - Kalchuri king of Chalukya vamsha ruled around 950 Century A.D


•18. Kaling Raja - The Kalchuri king, who settled at Tuman around 1000A.D

19. Tuman was the first capital Haihaya or Kalachuri kings who came to Chattisgarh for the first time.


•20. Kaling Raja's son was Kamal Raja.


•21. Kamal Raja's son was Ratna Raja (Ratnesh).


•22. Ratna Raja's son was Prithvi Dev.


•23. Ratna Raja - Ratna Raja or Ratna Dev-I was grand son of Kalig Raja.


•24. Ratna Raja founded the city of Ratnapur and shifted his capital from Tuman to Ratnapur.


•25. Prithvi Dev-I named Amodhapatt 1079 A.D dedicated Chatushk (building standing on four pillars) in Tumman.


•26. Jajalwa Dev - a Kalachuri king ruled Ratnapur during the year 1114 century A.D.


•27. As per stone inscription of king Jajalwa, Kokkula of Cheds dynasty had 8 sons.


•28. The first son of Kokkula became the ruler of Tripuri.


•29. The other sons became administrators of small kingdoms.


•30. Kaling Raja was the ancestor of the kokkula and his 8 sons.


•31. One prince of Haihaya dynasty had 18 sons in 1181 A.D as per stone inscription of Ratnapur.


•32. Kaling was the name of One of the 18 sons of Haihaya prince.


•33. Kaling's son was Kamal and Kamal ruled Tuman.


•34. The Haihaya dynasty split into two in around 14th Century A.d.


•35. The elder brach of Haihayas continued to rule from Ratnapur and the younger settled in semi-independent state at Raipur.


•36. Raipur was founded by the Kalchuri King Ram Chandra of Raipur in last quarter of the 14th century AD.


•37. Around 1402 Kalchuri emperor King Bramhadev built a biggest, spectacular lake at Raipur which is known as Budhapara.


•38 Gaja Singh was a Kalchuri king who performed penance to please Godess Padmawati.


•39. Vijjala was a prominent king of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani clan.


•40. Raghunath Singhji was the last surviving member of Ratnapur house and was deposed by Marathas who aatacked Chattisgarh in 1745 Century A.D.


Leanage of Kalchuri kings :
Kaling Raja -> Kamal Raja -> Ratna Raja -> Prithvi Dev.....-> Raghunath Singhji

{ Note : It is to be noted here that the kings who ruled kalchuri or chedi or haihaya kingdom from Tripuri (Jabalpur) were known by title KOKALLA. Numerous inscriptions belonging to the Kalchuri kings establish the genealogy of these kings from Kokalla-I (875 AD) to Kokalla-15 (1180 AD), the last Kalchuri king. Some where it was mentioned that there was a kalchuri king by name KOKKULA. These names KOKALLA and KOKKULA seems to be one and the same and most probably refer to family title of some kalchuri clans.

There are some people in Mudiraja caste having surnames KOKOLU. As it was already accepted by some historians that Mudirajas were the descendants of KALABHRAS and the kalabhras were the descendants or a branch of kalchuris, the surname KOKOLU of some mudiraja's today may be a thin pointer to the fact that the kings of kalchuris, kalabhras and the mudirajas were one and the same. }

kokkula => kokalla => kokkola => kokola => kokolu.

KALCHURIS OF MAHARASTRA :

The place of Vakataka was taken by the Kalacuris of Mahismati, modern Mahesvar in Central India, when the Vakataka disappeared from the stage of history in the year around about AD 550. They also had a large empire extending from Konkan in the west to Vidarbha in the east and from Malava in the north to the Krishna in the south. The founder of the dynasty was Karsnaraja, whose coins have been found in the Amravati and Betul districts. He was a devout worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva). That Vidarbha was included in Svamiraja dated in the Kalacuri year 322 (AD 573). These plates were issued from Nandivardhana which seems to have maintained its importance even after the downfall of the Vakatakas. Svamiraja probably belonged to the Rastrakuta family.

About AD 620 the Kalacuri king Buddharaja the grandson of Krishnaraja was defeated by Pulakesin II of the Early Chalukya dynasty, who thereafter became the lord of three Maharashtras comprising 99,000 villages. One of these Maharashtras was undoubtedly Vidarbha. The Rastrakutas, who were previously feudatories of the Kalacuris, transferred their allegiance to the Chalukyas and, like the latter, began to date their records in the Saka era. Two grants of this feudatory Rastrakuta family have been discovered in Vidarbha-one dated Saka 615 was found at Akola and the other dated Saka 631 was discovered at Multai. They give the following genealogy:-

Durgaraja => Govindaraja => Svamikaraja =>Nannaraja alias Ayuddhsura (known dates A.D. 693 and 713)

The Rastrakutas of Manyakheta and the Kalacuris of Tripuri were matrimonially connected and their relations were generally friendly. But in the reign of Govinda IV, they became strained. The Kakacuri king Yuvarajadeva I espoused the cause of his son-in-low Baddiga-Amoghavarsa III, the uncle of Govinda IV and fought on the bank of the Payosni (Puna) 16.093 km. (10 miles) from Achalpura, between the Kalacuri and Rastrakuta forces, in which the former became victorious. This event is Rajasekhara, which was staged at Triputi in jabilation of this victory.

Baddiga => Baddigam

Baddiga seems to be the family surname of kalchuri clans. In Mudiraja community, there are people with surname Baddigam. Baddigam seems to bea modified telugu version of name for Baddiga

ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF ELEPHANTA :

The elephanta caves are widely believed to have been carved during the reign of an early Kalacuri king (third quarter of 6th century), who ruled the Konkan area. The stele bearing the dedicatory inscription was removed from the site by the Portuguese centuries back. Mr. Rajesh Singh, a research associate in Kala Darshana division gave a talk on 'Art and Architecture of Elephanta'. He sought to highlight those points that set apart these caves from other temples. The Early Kalacuris were the followers of the Lakulisa-Pasupata sect of Saivism. The great Yogisvara image on the left of the north entrance (to the caves) that occupies an important place in the sculptural program of Elephanta is indicative of the yogic practices which must have once gone hand in hand with the complex ritualistic exercises undertaken inside the cave by the Lauklisa-Pasupata devotee. Lakuslia was the founder teacher of this sect who eventually attained to the Sivahood (salvation).

The Trimurti image at the end of the north-south axis is one of the images that has received considerable attention and various explanations have been given for it. The image, over five meters in height, has generated a great deal of discussion among scholars. Early scholars believed it to be the Hindu trinity representing Brahma, Visnu and Mahesa. This identification has now been set aside. Now it is argued that the faces visible are only those, which could be carved, to be seen from the front while a fourth is implied at the rear, and even a fifth, facing upwards, in accordance with the five faces of Siva described in Visnudharmottara. The three faces may represent respectively Aghora-Bhirava (an angry form of Siva), Siva and Uma. These faces also denote the forms of power of the universal Brahman: sattva is depicted by the central face, tamas by the angry countenance, and rajas by the tranquil face at the right. Other sculptural panels have their own stories to tell. The complex nature of their iconographic, aesthetic and ritualistic aspects considered in junction with the development of cave architecture in general are bound to arouse far greater curiosity in future.

KALACHURIS OF SOUTH INDIA :

Many Pallava and Pandya writings describe that the Kalabhras attacked the Tamil country and defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas and established their kingdom. Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts that these valiant Kalabhra kings were the devoted followers of Jainism. Basically, Kalchuri kings of M.P were supporters of Jainism. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country.He proved it on the basis of copper plate of Veluikudi and Painyapuranam of Tamil language. Shri Ayangar presumes that these Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri clan. The evidence on this is that they were closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king Vijjala of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola.

KALCHURIS OF KALYANA KINGDOM :

The Kalachuris, who overthrew and took the place of the Chalukyas of Kalyana in the early part of the 12th century, had a relatively short but stormy rule. The period threw up two striking personalities: An energetic, if somewhat wicked, adventurer who flouted the authority of his Chalukya master and achieved the Kalachuri independence - Bijjala. Another figure of eminence was Basaveshvara who marshaled a virile, revolutionary movement of religious and social reform, which goes by the name of Virasaiva Movement.

Historians also have been able to identify several Kalachuri ruling families at Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur and so on. The Kalachuris were also related to the early Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances. It is also argued that they migrated to the south India and made Magaliveda or Mangalavedhe (Mangalavada) their headquarters. They called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara, which indicates their central Indian origin. Their emblem was Suvarna Vrishabha or the golden bull. They must have started as modest feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyana.

The first notable chief of the Kalachuri family of Karnataka was Uchita, who is said to have been followed by Asaga, Kannam and Kiriyasaga. However under Bijjala I and his son Kannama, the Kalachuri family must have earned considerable political fame. But Kannama's son Jogama became an influential feudatory of the Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, who was matrimonially connected with the Kalachuri Chief. This trend continued during the reign of Jogama's son and successor, Permadi. Though he was only a Mahamandalesvara or a feudatory Chief, his influence in the disintegrating set-up of the Chalukya rule must have been immense.

Bijjala II (C. 1130-1167 A. D.): Varni. But epigraphical and many literary sources clearly indicate that Bijjala was a Saiva by persuasion. In fact the period saw a Saiva revival with which were associated the famous names of Ekantada Ramayya, Goggideva and Viruparasa. The Kalachuri ruler was evidently a Sava, but of the orthodox school, and he could not stomach the revolutionary ideas and practices of Basaveshvara. This explains Bijjala's opposition to the Virasaiva movement. Bijjala abdicated in 1167 A. D. in favour of his second son Sovideva. But that did not prevent the eruption of trouble, which shook the Kalachuri Kingdom and took Bijjala as a victim. Some scholars have argued that the trouble was political in nature, and that evil officers like Kasapayya Nayaka engineered the conspiracy. But Dr. P. B. Desai is of the opinion that Bijjala's hostilities against the Virasaiva movement provoked violent reaction, which took the form of an open rebellion. Though Basaveshvara did not sanction violence, his followers unleashed it, and Bijjala appears to have been murdered in 1168 A. D. Bijjala's successor, Sovideva had to confront Challenges to his powers from many sides, but the held his own, and ruled upto 1176 A. D. he was succeeded by his younger brother Mallugi, but was almost immediately overthrown by his another brother Sankama who ruled till 1180 A. D. His successors were Ahavamalla (1180-83 A. D.) and Singhana (1183-84 A. D). During this period the Kalachuri Kingdom became weak and yielded its sovereign independence to the Chalukyas, whose power, in turn, flickered for a while before going out. The Kalachuri usurpation and rule, then, was dramatic, convulsive and short-lived. BIJJALA (VIJJALA) :

Bijjala II succeeded his father, Permadi, as the Mahamandalesvara and ruled over Karhada 4,000 and Tardavadi 1,000 during the reign of Chalukya ruler, Vikramaditya VI. Bijjala was confident of his strength and had realised that under Vikramaditya's successors the Chalukya Empire was showing all the signs of weakness, which spoke of its mortality. That indeed provided him enough justification to seek independence. The Balligave inscription speaks of his attitude when it says, "Sovereignty deserves to be enjoyed by one who is a true warrior". The Chikkalagi inscription refers to Bijjala as "Mahabhujabalachakravarti".

Thus by the time Taila III ascended the Chalukya throne, the powerful Kalachuri Chief had begun to pose as a sovereign ruler. Bijjala seemed to have in fact usurped the Chalukya throne by driving Taila III out of his capital. He proudly assumed the typical Chalukyan titles like Sriprithvivallabha and Parameshvara. His Harihara record says, "Just as Agastya, sprung from a jar of water, sucked the vast ocean, King Bijjala, born in the family of feudatory chiefs, subjugated the whole earth by dint of his prowess".

The hapless Taila was put to death, along with other members of the Chalukya family. So, with his hands reeking with the blood of his overlord, Bijjala like another Macbeth seized the Chalukyan crown. He then shifted his capital from Mangaliveda (Mangalavada) to the royal city of Kalyana.

Bijjala's independent rule was short; it lasted from about 1162 A. D. to 1167 A. D. During these years he fought successfully against the Hoysala King Narasimha I and the Pandya Chief of Uchchangi. He also defeated the Seunas and the Cholas, and subdued the turbulent Chiefs of Andhra and Kalinga. In administration, Bijjala is said to have introduced certain innovations. Bijjala reposed great trust in Kasapayya Nayaka, who rose to position of influence in the Kalachuri Kingdom. The great Virasaiva saint Basaveshvara was Bijjala's Chief treasurer.

Scholars like B. L. Rice had believed that Bijjala was a Jaina. This erroneous view was based on the evidence of later literary works like Chennabasavapurana of Virupaksha Pandita, Bijjalarayacharite of Dharani Pandita and the Bijjalarayapurana of Chandrasagara.

Among the Kalachuri kings that ruled (1156-83 A. D.) over Karnataka, mention must be made of Bijjala. He ruled at Kalyana which is today named as Basava-Kalyana.He was a king of great religious tolerance and had Basaveshwar of the Veerssaiva faith as his minister. The forefounder of the Linage emperor Bijjala of 12th Century was minor kalachuri clan chief. The kalachuri clan was also called as Haihayas and very ancient people. These people were ruling in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region around 8th century AD. Several branches of this family had settled in different parts of Northern India. The most famous king of this clan was Kokalla - I, who was an imperial power below modern day Madhya Pradesh. He had defeated all major kings in that era around 10th century AD.

Bijjala was a federatory chief of the Kalachuri clan. The reign of Vikramaditya VI., or Vikramanka, which lasted from 1076 to 1126, formed another period of Chalukya greatness. Vikramankas exploits against the Hoysala kings and others, celebrated by the poet Bilhana, were held to justify him in establishing a new era dating from his accession. With his death in the middle of the 12th century, however, the Chalukya power began to decline. In 1156 the commander-in-chief and a feudatory - Bijjala (or Vijjana, 1156 - 67 AD) Kalachurya revolted, and usurped the throne at Kalyani. He and his sons held the kingdom till 1183. In this year, the last of the Calukya rulers, Somesvara IV (1181-c. 1189), regained the throne for a short period, as a part of his patrimony, only to succumb, about 1190, to the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra. Henceforth the Chalukya rajas ranked only as petty chiefs.

Bijjala defeated Jayasimha in 1156 AD and other federatory chiefs who had revolted. He fought successfully with the Cholas, Gangas of Kalinga, the clan Inkyas and the other branch of Kalachuris of Tripuri. It is also said for a very short period he conquered Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Nepala, Turushka and Simhala. By 1157 AD Bijjala assumed imperial titles and a era may be said to have started as Kalachuri revolution now ran its course and Bijjala setup his rule in Chalukya capital Kalyani.

Bijjala was patronising Jainism, Kolanpaka –80 KM from Hyderabad, (AP) INDIA, was said to be the alternate capital of the Bijjula. This was a very rich city covering an area of fifty Square Kilometers and a nerve center of Jainism, which had imperial patronage of the Emperor.

Bijjala changed his seat of power to Kalyana. At age 48 he moved with King Bijjala to Kalyana, where, joined by Allama Prabhu, his fame continued to grow for the next fourteen years. Basaveshwara became the minister to King Bijjala in 1162 AD. Bijjala married the beautiful daughter of Basavaraja and over a period of time, Basavaraja became very powerful and used most of the State's finances to promote and propagate Veera Sivaism, when patronage of Jainism was at it's peak.

Basaveshwara's life long aim was to eradicate the deep rooted varnashrama or the caste system. Though he was the minister, he used to invite the untouchables to his residence and have meals with them. This act incited the hatredness among the orthodox people who were jealous about the Basaveshwara's great achievement. Through the years, opposition to his egalitarian community grew strong among more conventional citizens. They carried many false stories to King Bijjala to malign Basaveshwara. These accusations created suspicion in the mind of Bijjala and he was fearing about the uprising of traditional and orthodox society, if the accusations were proved to be true.

During the reign of Bijjala, his Prime Minister Basavaraja tried to spread and strengthen the base of siviate sect among the masses with state exchequer, which also had the Emperor's blessing because of it's Reformist Movement and was instrumental in popularising Siva worship and built temples from Orissa (cuttack) to Alampur in Andhra Pradesh. The famous Alampur temples were built during this reign and were the man who installed one crore-shiva lingams (Coti Lingalu) in Alampur (AP). This led to a prolonged and fierce battle between followers of Jainism and Siviates, which soon spread to all the regions of Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Prime Minster's followers i.e. the Siviates were victorious after massacring the followers of Jainism and destroying great number of Jain temples, Libraries and Jain Manuscripts. Bijjala was a ruler in Kalyan in the period 1156-1167, and it is said that he was a follower of Jainism. Bijjala was very religious person, jain himself and highly tolerant towards all other religions.

SOMESWARA :

Some people say that Bijjala had retired to the forest, in favour of his son Someswara, who came to the throne in 1168 AD. Someswara is credited with many victories including those against the Cholas, Gangas and Chaulukyas. During his reign Veera Siviasm flourished in full glory and grandeur, giving it's eight-fold path to eradicate the miseries of it's followers in particular and people in general. The Epic called BASAVAPURANAM was written during this period. This philosophy attracted the masses, who accepted it with open arms and thus the capital city of Bijjula, Kalyani became the nerve center of Veera sivaism. Someswara died in 1177 AD and his brother Sankana who succeeded him conquered many counties from Bengal to Ceylon. During this period there was lot of confusion about the Imperial Religion and the conflict again broke between Siviates, Jains and Vishanavites, supported by the Commander-in-chief of Army.

Ahavamalla succeeded Sankana in 1180 AD. He was great devotee of Lord SIVA. He gave all the taxes collected from Tumbala, Gogguru And Alampur Provinces in present day Mahabubnagar and kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh (India) to the presiding Deity of Srisailam i.e. Mallikarjuna Swamy Devasthanam (Endowment Trust) i.e. Lord Siva. The inscription to this effect is in Sanskrit and earliest Telugu at srisalum temple. Alampur was called Brahmapuri, which was a very important educational center called Brahamapuri Vidhyapeetam. This center received rewards, grants and gifts from various subsequent kings, queens and Emperors. The famous pundits from this center are Trilochanamuninadha and Ekantadesakadi. Details about this are available in English and Telugu books sold by the Srisalum Devasthanam Board at Srisalum Temple. He subsequently lost large portion of Deccan to Chalukya King Taila-III ' s Son Someswara IV.

Ahavamalla still continued to rule small principality and was succeeded by younger brother Singhana in 1183 AD, who later submitted to Chalukyas as his general Barmideva or Brahma deserted and went over to the service of Someswara IV, thus putting an end to Kalachuri power in 1190 AD. After 1190AD,the Empire of Kalayani split into three parts, namely the kingdom of Devagiri founded by Yadavas, the kingdom of Warangal, governed by kakatiyas and the kingdom of Dorasamudra ruled by the Hoysalas.

Bijjala's sons i.e., Someswara and his brothers , who ruled the Deccan Plateau from 1168 AD to 1183 AD lost the kingdom to the Chalukyas in 1183 AD. His descendents were ruling small principalities between River Krishna and Tungabadra for over 300 years (1185 AD to 1500 AD) . That was the time when various Muslim rulers were gaining territories all over the South India (Deccan).

KALCHURIS OF ALAMPUR OF ANDHRA PRADESH :

DADHI REDDI :

There are people in Mudiraj community having Dhadhi as their gotram. Bijjala, and most of the Kalachuri clans were Shaivites. Dadhi Reddy and their descendants also followed shaivism and patronised the same. This also gives us a clue that there are some sections of Reddies having descendancy from Kalchuris.

Bijjala's sons i.e., Someswara and his brothers , who ruled the Deccan Plateau from 1168 AD to 1183 AD lost the kingdom to the Chalukyas in 1183 AD. His descendents were ruling small principalities between River Krishna and Tungabadra for over 300 years (1185 AD to 1500 Ad) . That was the time when various Muslim rulers were gaining territories all over the South India (Deccan).

Their Descendent (great......grand son) Dadhi who was the Commander in chief of Bijapur army defeated Vijayanagar Emperor's army and captured Raichur fort and its surrounding areas as Krishna Deva Raya's armies were busy with Orissa campaign, which won the whole of Gajapathi's territory. The Nawab of Bijapur was pleased with his expedition and told him that he would give him all the area that he covers from sunrise to sunset in any given day and was also awarded a title called "REDDI". Dadhi Reddi set off at Raichur fort in the morning just before the sunrise and covered area of Raichur, Amangal and Alampur and reached the village of Panyagrahi (Now Pallepad) before sunset on the same day. As promised Bijapur Nawab had given three taluks with Raichur as head quarters. Thus, Dadhi Reddi had become an absolute owner of men, material and land of the three taluks. He was always at the service of the Bijapur rulers whenever they needed his services.

Krishna Deva Raya lead an army of about one million men and five hundred elephants and pitched his camp to the east of Raichur and began the seize of the Raichur fortress. Bijapur Nawab came with relief of strong contingents of cavalry and Krishna Deva Raya won a decisive battle and the fort was captured after a very long seize with the help of a Portuguese commander. He died fighting in war at Raichur fort around 1520 AD, which is inscribed in the fort ramphants.

Dadhi Reddi's heroics of trying to saving the fort from capture and subsequently laying down his life were remembered in the form of dance and drama for over 400 years in the surrounding villages of the Raichur fort. Dadhi Reddi's son Krishna Reddy ruled Alampur and Amangal area with Alampur (Mahaboobnagar, AP, India) as his capital. They were basically sivaites and ruled Alampur for Five generations. They had spent all their time renovating & building the great temples of Alampur, which was the most sacred place for Sivaites after Kasi. His one of the famous descendent Konda Reddy (1597-1643), the last ruler of Alampur-- famously identified by the well known monument called Konda Reddy Buruju in Kurnool City(AP), had defeated Kurnool Nawab, a subordinate of the Golkonda Kings several times and was ultimately captured and was imprisoned in the fortress, which subsequently became famous as Konda Reddy Buruju, because of his valour and untiringly resolve to fight the Muslim rulers. He escaped from the fortress digging a tunnel across the River Krishna to Alampur and ultimately lost his kingdom to Golkonda Kings. The family then moved to Practoor Fort around 1665 AD, which is about 20km from Alampur.

They were the independent ruler of the small principality of around 100 villages with Practoor Fort as their head quarters, after the East India Company took over the Kurnool and its surrounding areas from Nizam. The next nine successors lived at Practoor fort and the favorite pass time was writing poetry. Most prominent among these kings were Timma Bhopalludu, who wrote a series of poems and put them in a book called "Anargaragamu". They were very religious and always had progeny problem. They gifted a large amount of land of Tirupathi Devasthanam for giving first arathi of the day and in the process they became Vishnuvites hoping that the kings of this line will always have male descendents. The kings of this line lost Practoor around 1790 AD due to death of their king Narasimha Bhoopaludu (Pedda Narsimha Reddy) who was poisoned by his cousins. His wife Rani Chinnamma Devi took refugee with Raja of Kollapur, who had considerable influence with the British. Subsequently there was an understanding with Nizam of Hyderabad under the influence of the British to let Rani Chinnamma Devi have a small Jagir of five Villages with Pallepad as Headquarters with absolute power. Rani Chinnamma Devi had her own currency, which was recognised by British and Nizam of Hyderabad as they were in silver and gold coins. Rani Chinnamma Devi had revenue system, which was later incorporated in toto , when India became a Republic in 1951.

The English had supported her all through the turbulent years of succession and Kollapur Raja had treated her as his daughter till she got the jagir around 1795 AD. Raja of Kollapur also gave her 1000 acres of land as gift, beore she left to take control of her jagir in Pallepad. It is said that she never took control of this gift in kollapur, which she later returned to the Kollapur Samsthan. She had problems with her three sisters who collectively claimed half of the jagir, which resulted them, getting one village with no titles. The five villages Rani Chinnamma Devi got as Jagir of Pallepad were Pallepad, Boravalli, Jalapuram, Kathur and Practoor.The others got the village of Maramungal.Rani Chinnamma Devi had also got good amount of land in Maramungal too. Rani Chinnamma's son Bijjula Venkat Dharma Reddy was a very religious person and it is believed that he was a authority on Vedas and Upanishads, and that was one reason that he had all types of visitors like Sadhus from Himalayas to very learned men from Kerla.

His son Bijjula Venkata Narshima Reddy succeeded his grand mother Rani Chinnamma and administered the Jagir.He build three big irrigation tanks networked with canals in Pallepad Village to irrigate about 150 acres, which costed Rs. 1.00 Lakhs around 1875 AD and also was exporting Blue (Colour- were no Synthetic colours then) to Europe and London by ship from Bombay. He had setup the manufacturing plant at Pallepad, which was the Jagir's Administration Headquarters. He planted exotic mango gardens to an extent of over hundred acres, which had a collection of nearly hundred varieties collected from places from as far as Lahore and Delhi. He was also a very religious person. It is said that he had Darshan of GOD himself in the form of Narshima Avatar at Wanaparthy Fort, when he was on a visit. His descendents still own lands and continue to live in the villages with Pallepad as their headquarters having some interest in surrounding villages too. The last Jagirdars of this line until the abolition of Jagirs by the Indian Government were Bijjula Chandra Shekar Reddy, Bijjula Venkat Dharma Reddy and Bijjula Rameshwar Reddy.

All this information is from family records of Bijjula and linage that is being maintained by the family over last 300 years. Bijjula Rameshwar Reddy had narrated the long history of the family over a period of time to Anirudh Bizzul his last son, who was interested in maintaining the family record for future generations to know their ancestry. During the jagirdari period Bijjula Venkata Dharma Reddy published many books on religious matter and lately around 1960's Bijjula Rameshwar Reddy had published a book regarding the finding of copper plates of Chaluks/Cholas periods which threw some light on the ancient period of this lands.

The present village of Pallepad, on the banks River Krishna was totally constructed by Rani Chinnamma Devi between 1796 to 1800 AD. All the descendents right from Dadhi Reddy had always lived on the banks of river Krishna and built/renovated forts like Raichur,Alampur, Practoor and Village of Pallepad lastly.

These rulers of Alampur , i.e., the descendents of Bijjula were the chief of Sivaite sect , who were even considered as, re-incarnation of Lord Shiva.They had powers to appoint the religious head of this sect and this practice continued till early 1950. The Religious head of this sect was considered the most sacred person and had an authority as Shankaracharya of the present times.

( Note : This makes it clear that there are kalchuri descendants among the Telugu people. They got "REDDY" as a royal title from Nawab of Bijapur and " BIJJULA ", the name their clan as their surname. Similarly there are several people with surnames such as kokkula, kokalla, kokkola, kokola and kokolu, which were also possibly derived from the names of kalachuri clans. There are people with surname " kokolu " in Telugu mudirajas. The Mudirajas are believed to the descendants of kalchuris, a brach of kalchuris as per Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar.)

The History of Bijjula Deva and his ancestors is well accounted in the history books of our country "INDIA". The descendents of king Bijjula Deva were not only great warriors but poets, publishers of books and very good administrators.

Kokalla - I Belonged to 845 AD (During king Bhuja - I 's Period). Defeated Bhuja - I and his cousin Sankaragana was an imperial power below Madhya Pradesh. Survived with 18 sons who were given 18 different governences in his kingdom.


•Sankaragana Was first son of Kokalla - I. Ruled from 878 - 888 AD.
•Balaharsha - Son of Yuvaraja succeeds in Middle of 10th century.
•Lakshmanaraja is son of Balaharsha's Brother and Belonged to end of 10th century AD, ruled whole of south, Gujarat and Kashmir.
•Sankavagan - II Son of Lakshmanaraja Yuvaraja Brother of Sankavagan. Lost all Kingdom .
•Kokalla - II son of Yuvaraja regained all kingdom and belonged to very end of 10th century.
•Gangeyadeva - son of Kokalla - II, ruled south Kosala, Orissa, Banasa, Bhopalpur, Kanpra valley. (Lord of Tri Kalinga till Vikramaditya) and died in Allahabad(Prayag).
•Lakshmi Karna - succeeded father Gangeyadeva and lived from 1048 to 1072 AD. Ruled from Allahabad, Congund ,West,south & East Bengal,Kanchi,Chandella Kingdom.
•Yasah Karna - Son of Lakshmi Karna succeeded in 1072 AD, Lost south Chandella, Allahabad and Benaras and was succeeded by his son Gaya Karna.
•Gaya Karna Defeated by Chandella King and was succeeded by 2nd son Jayasimha 1159 to 1167 AD and was defeated by minor Kalachiri clan chief Bijjala Vijayasimha (1177 - 1180 AD)
•Jayasimha's son lost whole of Kalachuri kingdom including Dahala-Mandala whose descendents are Hoyabani Rajputs of Balia Dist in Uttar Pradesh
•Bijjala Deva Was minor Kalachuri Feudatory Chief and took the reins from Jaya simha by defeating him and went on to rule the whole of Deccan and kalinga from 1156 to 1168 AD With Kalyani as capital .
•Someswara son of Bijjala Deva ruled from 1167 to 1177 AD and was succeeded by younger brother Sankara.
•Sankara ruled from Bengal to Ceylon in 1177 to 1180 AD
•Ahavamalla younger brother of Sankara he succeeded Sankara and later lost Deccan to Chalukya kings in 1181 AD.
•Singhana Younger brother of Ahavamalla he succeeded and in 1183 AD submitted to the Chalukya kings.


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KALCHURIS RULERS OF PALNADU IN ANDHRA PRADESH :

The Kalachuris, who were the natives of Cental India, came down to South India via Maharastra, Telangana, Karnataka and finally to Tamilnadu. While they came to be known as Mudiraj in Telugu speaking lands, the became famous as Muthuraja in Tamilnadu. These were the same people who called themselves as Aryans / Arayans / Arayars / Arasars / Arasu when the reached South India. They were the same people who created havoc by invading Chola, Chera and Pandyan kingdoms in South India and came to be known as Kala Arasars / Kalabhras. They were brave warriors, powerful administrators, and laborious temple & city builders.

Here, we have the story of Ankamma ( see Ankamma page in this website for more details ) which contain certain names to know the origins of those sections of Mudiraj community who are worshipping Goddess Ankamma / Ankalamma.

In one of the versions of Ankamma story, Kommaraju was the hero. There was a Kalchuri prince by name Kommaraja who belonged to Kalyani Kalchuris and had matrimonial alliance with Palnati Kalchuris of Telugu speaking lands. Since Kommaraju belonged to Kalyani Kalachuris and Kalchuris were Lunar race (soma vamsi / chandravamsi) kings, these descendants of Kommaraju could be from lunar race kings. The popular family diety of these sections of Mudiraj is Ankamma. They name their children with names such as Ankamma, Ankammarao, Ankarao, Pothuraju, Kommaraju, etc.

In the second version of Ankamma story, the hero was Rava Deva Raju and they belonged to Devagiri. Devagiri was the capital of Yadava Kingdom and it was also a part of Chalukya dynasty that spread in Maratha - Kannada speaking lands. The father's name of Ravadeva Raju was Dharma Choda Chari. These people could also be Kalachuris having relation to Chola-Chalukyas.

In both the versions of Ankamma story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu, it is quite clear that these Mudiraj ancestors were related to Brahmanaidu of Palnadu through their community and royal blood. While in one of the versions of the story, Rava Ddeva Raju and his father Dharma Choda Chari joined the royal court of Brahma Naidu, in the second version of the story, Kommaraja attacked Palnati Kalchuris in association with Brahmanaidu to take revenge for the death of his son Alaraja, who was poisned by Nagamma.

(1) KOMMA RAJU : Komma and Kommaraju are two surnames among Telugu people belonging to different castes and communities in Andhrapradesh today. Komma surname is prevelent among people of Mudiraj, Kshatriya Rajulu, Reddy and may be some other caste groups.

Mudiraj people are descendants of Kalchuris : There is a reference to one Kalachuri whose name was Kommaraja ( Komma Raja ) of Kalyani in the battele of Palnadu. The hero in the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu is also Kommaraju / Kommaraja and one of the ancestors of some sections of Mudiraj people. This once again proves the connection between Mudiraj and Kalchuris through the story narrated by ballads during Ankamma Kolupu..

Palanati Kalchuri rulers (1176-1182) : The battle of Palnadu (Pallavanadu) is narrated in the Palnati Vira Charita of Srinatha. It was a battle between two factions of the Kalachuris (Haihaya).

Nalagama Raju was the son of Alugu Bhupathi Raju of the Palanati Kalachuris. His step brother was Malideva Raju, who was married to a princess of the Kalyani branch of Kalachuris. Dodda Naidu and Brahma Naidu were vassals of the Velanti Chodas (Vassals of the Chola-Chalukyas and responsible for the administration of their Andhra territories) and tried to usher in a new era in which caste distinctions would be abolished. Nalagama Raju was against this and tried to check their progress. Nalagama was supported by Nagamma, a female statesperson who became his chief adviser. The differences in ideology led to Brahma Naidu leaving with his supporters, including Nalagama's half brother Malideva and set up an independent court in Macherla.

Mutual suspicion and rivalry reached a high pitch between the two courts and Nagamma, under the pretext of Malideva's defeat in a cock-fight, exiled them for 7 years from Palnadu. After 7 years Brahma Naidu sent Alaraja, the son of Kalachuri Kommaraja of Kalyani, and the brother-in-law of Malideva to claim Malideva's share. The demand was turned down and Alaraja was poisoned to death under the orders of Nagamma. The enraged Kalyani Kalachuris and Brahma Naidu declared war on Gurujala. The fierce battle was fought in Karempudi on the banks of the river Naguleru. The Kakatiyas, Kota Vamsa, Parichedas and Hoysalas supported Nalagama and the Vengi Kalachuris. The Velanti Chodas and Malideva were supported by the Kalyani Kalachuris.

Nalagama was victorious. The civil war shook the Velanadu kingdom to its foundation. A whole generation of the greatest warriors of Andhra perished. The tragedy hastened the end of the Chalukyan rule in Vengi. It exposed their weaknesses and allowed the Hoysalas, Kalachuris, Eastern Gangas, and the Kakatiyas to eventually overrun them.

After the fall of the Chalukya empire Andhra was divided into an number of small dynasties. Amongst them were the Kalachuris, Perichedas, Kakatiyas, Velanti Cholas, Telugu Pallavas, and the Kota Vamsas.

The Kota Vamsas ruled their part of Andhra Pradesh with Dharanikota as their capital. It is believed that after the death of Kota Dodda Raju in the battle of Palnadu in AD 1182, the Kotas dispersed and named themselves after the villages of their origin such as Datla, Pakalapati, Chintalapati, Jampana, etc.

The Kakatiya Empire eventually became the preeminent power of Andhra and it was the first empire since the Satavahanas to incorporate the entire telugu speaking area. After the eventual fall of Warangal the Kotas became contemporaries of the Musunuri Nayaks and the Reddy kings of Rajamundry and eventually fell to the Vijayanagara Empire.

Telugu Raju Rulers : Historians have deciphered writings on the walls of temples describing the names and gotrams (family groupings) of some ancient Raju rulers and the contributions made by them to the temples and towns. Many of the Kshatriya Rajus are most probably the descendants of Kalchuris.

(2) KALYANA KINGDOM : The Kalyana referred in the story of Ankamma narrated by ballads points the connection of some sections of Mudiraj people to Chalkyan dynasty. Even the kingdom of Devagiri mentioned in the second version of the story was also part of Chalukya dynasty at one time. The Chalukyans are believed to be the kshatriyas of Maratha - Kannada origin. Chalukyans are also closely related to Kalchuris and Rastrakutas. The reference made to seven kings ruling Kalyana might be the chieftains of Chalukyan dynasty and ancestors of some sections of warrior Mudiraj / Mutharacha caste.

According to a Western Chalukya inscription of Vikramaditya VI, the Chalukyas originally hailed from Ayodhya where fifty-nine kings, and later sixteen more, of this family ruled from Dakshinapatha (South India) where they had migrated. Ayodhya Rama was one of the Suryavansi kings down the lane after Suryavansi koli Mandhata. The seven chieftains who were staunch shaivites and opposed to worship shakti could be suryavansi kolis. It is a well known fact that the Mudiraj in North India are known as kolis.

Kingdom of Kalyana & Chalukyas : Kalyana was the capital of the Chalukya kingdom.Taila (973-997 AD), a descendent of Early Chalukyas was the founder of the second Chalukya dynasty commonly referred as Western Chalukyas. His capital was located at the Manyakhet or Malkhed in modern Maharashtra state. His grandson Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla repelled invasion by Rajendra Chola in 1018 AD from South India and also defended his kingdom from northern invasion.

He later transferred his capital from Malkhed to Kalyana or Basavakalyana in modern Karnataka state. Jayasimha was an able ruler and was follwed by his equally brave son, Someshwara I (1043-68) who took a title of Trailokyamalla. Rajadhiraja Chola mounted an expedition against Chalukyas in 1045 AD and later captured their capital Kalyana. Someshwara retaliated and expelled Rajadhiraja. Eventually, by the end of 12th century AD, the sovereignty of entire south India was shared between Vikramaditya VI of Chalukya dynasty and Rajendra Chola (III) Kulottunga I.

Eleven kings ruled after Tailapa. They were Satyashraya Iriva Bedanga (997-1008 CE) VikramadityaV (1008-1015 CE), Jayasimha II (1015-1044 CE), Someshwara I (1044-1068) and Someshwara II(1068-1076 CE), Vikramaditya VI (1076-127 CE), Someshwara III (1127-1139 CE), Jagadekamalla (1139-49 CE), Tailapa III (1149-1162 CE) and finally Someshwara IV (1158-98 CE). Kalachuris, Hoysalas and Sevunas who were all biding their time were just waiting for a weakling to become a successor to Chalukyan throne. Kalachuris won, but then, Chalukyan Empire had disintegrated enough for all aspirants to have independent kingdoms.

Someshwara's son Vikramaditya VI (1076-1127 AD) was a famous king of Chalukyan dynasty. He started a new era replacing old `Shaka' era. His reign is landmark in history of Hindu Law. The great jurist Vijnaneshwara was patronised by him. Celebrated author Bilhana who wrote Vikramadeva-Charita was also in his court. He also known to have patronised numerous poets. His son and successor Someshvara III (1126-1138 AD) was also a writer of repute. After death of Someshwara III the Chalukyan empire started it's decline. After two centuries of rule, in 1190 AD this dynasty disintegrated and their territory was divided among three separate Kingdoms. Hoysalas of Dorasamudra, Kakatiyas of Warangal and Yadavas of Devgiri. Hoysalas occupied all of Karnataka region, Kakatiyas occupied Andhra pradesh while Yadavas occupied Maharashtra.

Symbol of Boar on Coins issued by Chalukyas : Boar is an important animal in the lives of some people belonging to Mudiraj - almikis and Muthuraj - Kannappa kula subcastes. The Chalukyas and Kalchuris matrimonially related and belong to one royal block.

The gold punch-marked coins were first introduced in south India in seventh century AD by Eastern Chalukya rulers. These punch-marked gold coins of ~3.5 to 4 gms were reintroduced by Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla, a ruler of Western Chalukya dynasty.

This is an uniface gold coin with seven punches, four of which are prominent while three are partly struck at the border of the coin. The two prominent punch marks create two Shri alphabates in Telugu-Kanerese which depicts lord Vishnu. The third punch mark corresponding to a triangular motif, represents spearhead. The fourth punch mark represents Telugu-Kanarese inscription which reads Bhairava. Two marks at the lower corners represent lions (stylized) while the seventh punch mark at the lower left corner perhaps represents sun and moon.

Some of the coins of similar type bear legend Sri Venga Vadi Gonda, the conquorer of Vengi. The obverse shows a large caprisoned boar or Varaha (represents one of the incarnaion of Lord Vishnu) which was Lanchhana or royal emblem of this dynasty. Above the boar is a pellet and crescent, representing sun and moon.

The faith of Shaivism : The Mudiraj people were staunch Shiva devotees at one time. This could be true as Kalchuris strongly supported Shaivism and jainism in their countries. Even Mutharayars too built Shiva temples in Tamilnadu.

The northern part of Karnataka is one of the richest areas of India in monuments of great artistic value. It was subjected to the rule of several royal families, Calukyas of Kalyana, Kalacuris and Seunas in the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th centuries A.D. which has been a period of great cultural refinement. It was the time of the greatest expansion of the Kalamukha-Lakulasaiva movements, and of the rise of Virasaivism. The temple of Muktesvara at Caudadanapura (Dharwar District) is a beautiful representative of the style and the high culture of that time. Its history is known to us thanks to a set of seven long inscriptions, composed in literary medieval Kannada, engraved with great care on large steles. They provide informations on the local rulers, kings of Guttala who claimed a Gupta ascendancy, on some constructions in the temple complex, on diverse donations to the deity, and very interesting details on a few prominent religious leaders. It introduces to us Muktajiyar, a Lakulasaiva saint, and Sivadeva, a Virasaiva saint, who entered the place on the 19th of August 1225 and led there a long life of renunciation, asceticism and spiritual elevation. The legacy of this age of intense Saivite faith is a jewel of architecture and sculpture. It is a single cella temple in what is popularly known as Jakkanacari style, sometimes called Kalyana-Calukyan style, which is not appropriate, as many temples of the same style have also been built under the patronage of Kalacuri or Seuna dynasties.

Kalachuris : This dynasty which overthrew the Chalukyas of Kalyani in the early part of the 12th century, had a relatively short but stormy rule. According to a record pertaining to the year 1174 , the founder of the family was a person by the name of Soma, who was a disciple of Ashwathama (the heroic character of the Mahabharata). According to legends, he grew a beard and a moustache to conceal his visage, in a bid to escape the wrath of the fiery Parashurama (another famous character of the Mahabharata).

Relics of Chalukyas of Kalyani : Thereafter his family and kinsmen came to be known as Kalachuris (Kalli meaning a long moustache and churi meaning a sharp knife). However, the later records of the dynasty claim that they descended from Brahma, the Creator of the universe.

The Kalachuris were also related to the early Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances. Some scholars believe that they migrated to the south and made Mangalavedhe (Mangalavada) their headquarters. They called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara, which indicates their central Indian origin. Their emblem was a golden bull. It is likely that they had started out as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani.

The first prominent ruler of the Kalachuris was Uchita, who was followed by Asaga, Kannam and Kiriyasaga. However under Bijjala I and his son Kannama, the Kalachuris began to wield considerable political power.

However Kannama's son Jogama became an influential feudatory of the Chalukya Vikramaditya VI, who was matrimonially connected to the Kalachuri chief. This trend continued right upto the reign of Jogama's son and successor, Permadi. Even though he was a Mahamandalesvara (feudal lord) he enjoyed considerable clout in the royal circles.

Brahma,the creator of the universe : Permadi's son Bijjala II (1130-1167 A.D) succeeded his father as the Mahamandalesvara. He realised that under Vikramaditya's successors the Chalukya empire was growing weaker. This encouraged him to declare his independence. The Chikkalagi inscription refers to Bijjala II as "Mahabhujabalachakravarti (literally: the sovereign with tremendous power in his arms).

Some historians identify several Kalachuri ruling families in Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur (eastern Gujarat) regions of central India. Dr. P. B. Desai, the renowned historian opines that the Kalachuris did not originally belong to Karnataka. On the contrary they had migrated from central India. There they were known as Katachuris, and they ruled over an empire spanning Malwa, Gujarat, Konkan and Maharashtra. However, one of its rulers, Buddharaja, experienced a crushing defeat at hands of the Chalukya king Mangalesa, which pushed this dynasty into oblivion.

The most outstanding figure that emerged during the reign of the Kalachuris was Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) who was the founder of the Lingayat ( linga = the phallic symbol of Shiva) religious sect in India. He ushered in a massive social transformation by inspiring and encouraging the people belonging to the lower castes to bring about changes in their ideas and thougts by concentrating on and sincerely worshipping Lord Shiva.

Basaveshwara is believed to have been a mystic, an idealist and a statesman. He was also an erudite and scholarly person, overflowing with kindness and compassion for the oppressed and the downtrodden masses. He preached his ideas about a new approach towards God and life by means of Vachanas or the sacred hymns composed by him.

Vasava spearheaded the Virasaiva movement, which sought to simplify religion and create a harmonious social order. Throughout his life Basava led a relentless crusade against the caste hierarchy, social inequality, and the heinous practice of untouchability. In the teeth of opposition from orthodox, high-caste Hindus, he endeavoured to stamp out all manner of social evils from of his state.

For more details about Kalyana Kingdom, please refer to web page "KINGDOMS" in this website.

SOME EVENTS OF KALCHURIS OF SOUTH INDIA :


•1154 A.D Kalchuri Bijjala became the Mahapradhana to Taila III.
•1155 A.D Bijjala Started carrying on the administration in the name of Taila III.
•1157 A.D Kalachuri Bijjala assumed full imperial titles.
•1162 A.D After the death of Baladeva, Basaveshwara was Minister to Bijjala. Allamaprabhu ascended sunya pitha in the anubhava mantapa
•1167 A.D Bijjala abdicated the throne in favour of his son somideva or someshvara.
•1181 A.D Somesvara IV the son of Chalukya Taila III became ruler after sweeping away the last remnants of Kalchuri power.
•1188 A.D Yadava Bhillama seized Kalyana. The Kakatiyas also gained some territory of chalukyan empire as a result of the final dissolution of Chalukyan hegemony.
•1270 A.D Yadava mahadeva was forced to surrender Bedadakota (Bidar) which was annexed to the Kakatiya Kingdom. Sinda Bhairava assisted Kakatiyas in the struggle
•1318 A.D Badarkot (Bidar) and other places were ceded to Khusrau Khan
•1320 A.D Kakatiya pratap rudra reoccupied Badarkot and other places.
•1322 A.D Bidar Town which was on the frontier of Telingana and Baswakalyan forts were taken by Ulugh Khan (Muhammad-Bin-Tughluq) who was then a prince. Those town fort were left incharge of trust worthy officers with strong garrison.
•1336 A.D The Vijaynagara empire founded.
GUNA

9 comments:

  1. you are not only casteist but a stupid as well. Muthariayar were Tamil pandiyas and not Kalabrar. Are you happy to say that you are a descendants of the invaders to the Tamil country. All these caste pigs must be chased out of Tamil Nadu.

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    Replies
    1. Can elaborate , how mutharaiyars are tamil pandiys ?

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  2. Except KALABRAS no other royal dynasty was of
    Mutharasi.

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  3. கண்ணப்பர் வழி வந்த மக்கள் ஐந்து சாதியினர். அவர்கள் வேடன், வேட்டுவர்( வேட்டுவ கவுண்டர்),மாவலர்( முத்தரையர்), காவலன் (காவிலி கவுண்டர்), பூலுவர் (பூலுவ கவுண்டர்) போன்ற இந்த ஐந்து சாதியினரும் இணைய முயற்சி செய்யுங்கள். தமிழ் நாட்டின் பெரும்பான்மை இனமாக இருப்பீர்கள்…

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    1. Can you explain , how Kanappar successors ?

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  4. PANDYAS too are termed to
    have been descended from
    pandu of lunar dynasty. Plz define "Sunamaudia" a branch and surname of Haihay origin in Orissa.

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  5. Remove a sentence at the top , the paragraph edited by Rajaran says that Mutharaiyars are Faithfull to Bhramins .How can Mutharaiyars be faithfull to Bharamins , they aganist Sansrikt and bharanisim .You have also said that in another paragraph , So remove this contervisial statement

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